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Global Warming

A Global Warning: Global Warming I The world is warming dangerously. It depends either on the natural causes or the artificial causes like human based greenhouse gases. This affects both the vegetation and zoological environment and also the human I life. Its effects are gradually Increasing every year. The purposes of our project Investigate the causes and the effects of global warming and to present the results of our survey. ;To attract attention on the solution proposals about global warming and become more effective on this issue.

I Causes of Global Warming I Weather conditions seen in a long period of time are called ‘climate’. The world passed approximately 250 thousand million years of warm periods four major cold periods In the last billion years. I 50 million years ago, the world entered the fourth cold period. In this era which lasted 100 thousand years, there were warm periods that lasted 10 thousand years. In this century, we are living one of these warm periods. The heat decrease started 4 thousand years ago and the world should now tend to cool down, but It did not In the last 150 years.

The main cause of global warming is the sun and the human based roundhouse effect. I Natural Causes Effect of the Sun I Papal Breaker – SEA scientist – declared that; scientists specialized on climate are researching Sun’s circular movements and the change of Its brightness. The Sun’s magnetic field and the Sun wind that appears as I protons and electrons are creating a shield against the cosmic rays. The strength of the shield changes depending on the different activities of the Sun and the shield is unable to prevent the cosmic resplendently. The Increase of these cosmic rays directly Increases the number of clouds in the sky.

It is changing the ratio of radiation created by the sun. The changing ratio is causing the global warming. I a I The ultraviolet Is affecting the ozone layer and the whole atmosphere, because It Is creating chemical reactions. I Earth’s Precision Movement Effect I In 1930, a Serbian scientist, Mullen Melancholic, emphasized that; world’s orbit became pressed down every 95 thousand years. He also declared that there was a circular slide in every 41 thousand years and a circular I deviation in every 231 000 casements cause temporarily cold weather periods.

During these periods, every 100 thousand years there are some hot eras which last about 10 thousand years. That is one of the reasons of the world’s increasing temperature. I El Onion’s Effect I The movement of El Onion is defined as a “warm event of south fluctuation” which causes Tropical East Pacific Ocean’s surface temperatures’ to raise about 2-ICC (35-4500 particularly in 1997-1998. The strongest El Onion in | 1998 is the main factor of the high temperature in that year. I a I Artificial Causes Fossil Fuels Coal, petroleum and natural gas provide u of the world’s energy need today.

Fossil fuels which have carbon and hydrogen elements in their structures are formed in incongruousness, but consumed very fast. These I fuels are gathered in certain parts of the world; and it is impossible to get them in % of the world, and technically it is very expensive for the other h. These disadvantages put fossil fuels in non-recycled, limited fuels’ class. I a I The Occurrences The Greenhouse Effect I The ozone layer and gases present in the atmosphere absorb some of the sunrays. A part of these are reflected from lithosphere and others are reflected from clouds.

While the rays that hit the earth surface reflect back, I water steam and other gases keep them. These rays warm up the earth but surface and troposphere get warmer than usual. This event is similar to the greenhouse effect that warms up the earth with sunrays and it is called natural greenhouse effect. I a I The Importance of The Greenhouse Gases I Greenhouse effect occurs naturally and has a great role on climate. Especially after the World War II, with the Industry Evolution, human activities caused a large increase on the ratio of the greenhouse gases I every year.

With the absence of this effect, the average heat of the world is expected to be nearly -cubit if the ratio of he greenhouse gases continues to increase, world’s climate balances are going to change seriously. I a I The reason that increases this natural effect is the greenhouse gases, which Lessening of ozone layer is another cause. Coordinated (COCO Cocoas a great role on the heating of the world, while the sunrays reach the earth surface; Coos permeable to these rays. By this way when the rays hit and reflect from the surface they are absorbed.

I Concentration in the atmosphere was 280-pumps 18th and 19th centuries but after the consumption of fossil fuels is increased to 350 pompadour. According to these measures, until 1958 the amount of Cocoon the atmosphere increased 9% and today the augmentation per year is calculated as 1 pumps a I The energy need in the world increases day by day, as the technology progresses rapidly. However governments are still unable to limit the usage of COCO Methane (CHICHI Since thousands of years the proportion of methane gas in atmosphere has never changed but in the last 2 hundred years the ratio of the methane has doubled.

Since 1950 methane increased by 1% per year. Latest I analysis reports shows that methane gas level has reached 1. 7 ephemeredes this change is less than the increase on Coeval, since methane gas is 21 times more permanently the CCITT affects our world much more. Alienated States and in many European countries aggregative big areas and create big problems. I a I Organic remaining creates big amounts of methane gas and causes explosions and inside burning at the areas, which do not have an effective air circulation: especially old garbage that cannot be controlled.

The most important problem occurs when methane gas proportion is increased in the atmosphere. And the greenhouse effect rises to dangerous levels. I Nitrogen Oxide and Water Steam I Nitrogen and oxygen create Nitrogen Oxides under cockfighting chemical reactions. Nitrogen Oxide appears in agricultural and industrial events, solid extracts or from burning fossil fuels. Also car exhausts create I the same element and it causes an environmental pollution. Water Steam is one of the major gases that causes the greenhouse effect, but its density in the troposphere does not affect humans, it is directly effectual on the climate system.

The increasing amount of water steam -due to the global warming- causes climate changes. I a I Chlorofluorocarbons (Scuffs Coffer’s made up from the mixture of fluorine, carbon and mostly the hydrogen. These gases, most of which are the products of assessor being used in the production of refrigerators, air-conditioners, sprays, fire deflator and plastics today. Scientists have proved that these gases destroy the ozone and cause are; DDEDTDiDioxideMercury, Lead,ViVindictivelyPCPC’sSuSculptureioxide,sedimentation Polymers.

I a I Deaths been used to poison agricultural insects between 1940 and 1950. The production of this gas (which includes chlorinates been stopped, when it is realized hat it causes death of other living organisms as well. I Dioxide’s has more than 100 kinds. It is used for the destruction of insects and plants. Most of the kinds of this gas are dangerous and cause several diseases like cancer. I a I Mercury: The most important feature of mercury is that it does not dissolve like other elements. It had shown its effect between 1950 untenanted caused the death of more than 100 fishers in Japan.

Although it had been used in the production of cosmetics for a period, this had been given up when it had been understood that it was poisoned. I Chlorofluorocarbons (Scuffled: Today, it is used as graphite in pencils. It is poisonous if penetrates to the body; it destroys the nerve system and gives damage to the brain. Vindictiveness is a mixture of gases which is used to produce PVC, in other words, ‘opinionatedly’. It has a toxic effect when breathed. Postprocessor from ‘popolycarbonateiphenylwhich is an English term.

This industrial chemical toxic has been started to be used in 1929 first and it has been determined that it has more than 100 kinds. They are used in the isolation of I a I electroencephalographic big switchboards; they are also used in electrical home equipments and they provide flexibility for paints and adhesives. Besides, it is known that they cause cancer. I Sedimentation is a kind of salt which is used to protect some foods like smoked fish and meat. It is known that it causes cancer when it penetrates to the body.

I Psycholinguistics (SASS This gas comes out with the burning of sculpturally, various natural gases and fossil fuels like petroleum and coal. The reaction of psycholinguistics and Nitrogen Oxide form sculpturing (WHISH which causes acid rains. I all Polymers: It has kind of natural and synthetic polymers. Natural polymers include protein and starch. The synthetic ones exist in plastic products and hand-made cloths; and are also named as nylon, tablespoonfuls, spandex and Styrofoam. I Lessening of ozone layer affects “Global Heating” indirectly.

Due to the report published by Janis 1979 it is claimed that 5%-10% loss at ozone layer has been observed. Despite the above-mentioned report, the I atmospheric ozone level in 1979-1991 at mid-latitude is 3%-5% and upper-latitude is decreased (6%-8%). (Gleason, 1993). The ozone level in 1992 on Antarctica is measured as the half value of 1979 observation. The ozone loss in 1990 is found to be 1/3 of 1950-1960 results. Due to the National Research Council’s Report in I a I March 1982 it is calculated that if Suffocation goes on at the same rate, the ozone value on stratosphere will decrease about 5%-10% at the end of 21st century.

I Effects of Greenhouse Gases I The world heat has been increased by O,CHOICES. 81 OF) since the Industrial Revolution. The main reason for this is the Second other greenhouse gases which come out by the burning of fossil fuels. Population increase I and energy needs of the growing economy expand the energy necessities as well. Meeting this need causes the increase of consumption of fossil fuels and increase the amount of Cocoon the atmosphere. Potentialities of the heat are examined in differentiation’s. I Drought and Floods: Greenhouse effect will cause various climatic changes.

If precautions won’t be taken, the negative effects of some nature events will reach big dimensions. Decrease in the power supply: All electrical power centrals need water. The augmentation of temperature will increase the necessity for electricity but the mount of water will not be enough for production. This will cause economic crisis in governments and societies. I a I Problems in river transportation: Related to the heat increase, water levels will decline and this will create difficulty in water trade and increase the transportation costs.

I Urban Heat Island Effect I Urban regions become hotter during sunny and hot days because of the intense population and high buildings. It is a result of the Urban Heat Island Effect. Asphalt areas -less plantation and more black surfaces- are the I main cause of this effect. N Entities, air circulation is hindered by constructions. The climate is damaged and it causes a local warming which directly affects the global warming. I a I must be adjusted properly. This will prevent the Urban Heat Island Effect. The example cities are, Detroit (USA), Los Meaningless), Hong Kong (China)…

Smog I The excessive amount of emission gases dense the air and thicken the gaseous layer because of this the sunrays are absorbed more and it creates a green house effect. In big cities, gases form the smog. I Smog causes the following problems to the inhabitants of big cities: -Lung pain Wheezing -Coughing -Headache -Infectious Lung Diseases I a Smog Formation Beside their chemical structures, the distribution and the particle size of the aerosols depend on the sources. For example, amount of the particles sized 105-104 SCM 100 times more at the 5 Theme than the ones in 1st km.

It is said that the particles smaller than 105 comer seen in the lower layers as they are formed near to the surface but these particles are also seen in troposphere-stratosphere layers in the maximum concentrations. This is explained with the hypothesis that the hohydrologicaleactions that take place between the Soullessness from the volcanoes and the extradition’s in the stratosphere produce larger molecules and these molecules are transformed to aerosols after some physical reactions. Experimental studies showed that polluting gases in the atmosphere like Assets sidesaddles with the sunbeams and transformed to larger molecules.

These larger molecules then form the aerosols named Discontinuances sized 10 7 -10 5 commit is shown that the continuous formation of Discontinuances causes meteorological changes like rain and fog. The mechanism undiminished extraordinariness remains unclear but solid particles of sulfate, chlorate, nitrate, ammonium in misdemeanors are often encountered in the rain and the fog; probably after the transformation of Classroom, Unfetter these reactions dust layer in the atmosphere gets thicker. The larger particles leave the atmosphere either augmentation or with the rain.

At the lower layers of atmosphere, it takes 2-6 days whereas it takes 2-4 weeks at the higher levels, 6-12 months in the central atmosphere layer and 3-5 years in the upper stratosphere for these particles to leave. This mechanism also affects the amount of solar radiation. Increasing aerosol formation and developing process increased the number of Discontinuances 2-10 folds. It is observed that the amount of Dictates stable for 5 years at the Southern Pole in cheerleader’s it increased two folds in the Northern Effects of Global Warming I Global warming is one of world’s major problems.

It is creating unwanted changes on nature and human life. I The intersection of the climate zone will destroy both the plantation and the animal life. Animals will suffer from the obligatory migration. Besides, the human life will aloes affected and the people who are living in the rough climate areas will have to migrate. Global warming also changes economical impacts. As natural disasters and contagious diseases will increase, real estate and individual premiums will also rise. Global warming equally affects both the agriculture and vegetation in a negative way.

I a I Natural Plant Cover I With the shift of hot climates to the north latitudes, the forests -that are the basic elements of the world’s plant cover- should show a shift to north latitudes as well. However it takes a long time for the forests to adapt to the I climate changes. After sheath’s increase in the usage of psycholinguistics and photochemical extraordinary urarbitrationpopulation growth caused the trees to be increasingly affected from this weather density. For example, the gases of Asseverates leave seeming stains on the trees.

I a I The polluted gas molecules which are hung on air insert into the earth by rain. These molecules react with some of the elements in the earth and the formed acid derivatives are absorbed by the trees. The trees which are affected by pollution this way loose strength; and the entry of insects and parasites to the tree’s body becomes easier. I Agricultural Products I In the central latitude zone (450-600), warmth zones are moving 150-550 km towards the poles. Movements are directly affecting the agricultural products, because of the changing weather conditions.

Some of these I products are affected positively (less frost events), but the others will be damaged (increasing heat). The increasing heat is also changing the route of manumissions is affecting in a negative manner the tropical and subtropical productivity because of the dry lands. But it can cause a possible increase in the productivity in Northern Canada and Europe, because of seasonal changes. Oceans I The sea level raised about 10-25 CACM the last century. Ocean’s thermal dilatation and melting of ice sheets are going to raise the sea level 15-95 commit 2100.

The estimated increase is 2 to 5 times bigger than the last I century. Seashores and islands will be mostly affected by the rising of the sea level. Theoretical events like tides, storms, tornados, tsunamis and sea waves are going to be seen more frequently. Besides the increasing sea level will also destroy fresh water supplies. I Effects on Natural Life I Most of the species’ nutrition cycle will be destroyed, their life sphere will be limited endue migrations will occur. World Wildlife Fund has declared that one to third ratio of plants and animals are threatened by global I warming.

In their report of “Global Warming and The Reducing of Different Species”, it is explained that 70% of natural life in Russia, Canada and Scandinavia is going to die. I a I Effects on Human Life I Effects on Health: ;The increasing heat can directly cause the loss of elders and children. 465 people were dead because of the weather conditions in 1995. | ;The elders and children are affected from the sunstroke. ;The polluted air becomes dense on the sunlight mandamuses respiration problems. The mosquitoes -that can cause contagious diseases such as malaria- can not survive under 17ICC6200, but a small increasing of heat, like CHOICES OF) can easily expand their life sphere from 42% to 60%. | a I ;A skin disease called “Lymphatic spreads out by ticks will be seen frequently because of the increasing heat. ;The increasing heat also expands the life sphere of parasites that live in water. I Effects on Human Life I Effects on Economy: Negative: ;”The Global Warming” caused 100 billion dollars of destruction. I ;Changing deterioration’s are affecting both the personal and the properties’ insurance premiums. The diseases and non-productivity on the agricultural products will increase the budget of insecticides and irrigation. Positive;A scientific research in Japan shows that; if the amount of Coos doubled, the production of rice will increase by 25%. | a I Precautions I The main cause that increases global warming is the energy reproduction process which is directly related to emissions of greenhouse gases. Using alternative energy sources that doesn’t cause greenhouse I effect is essential for Afghanistan’s elaborating. That’s why individual and institutional precautions are important nowadays.

Besides, international organizations like European Union or United Nations should use their power and be constitutions their responsibilities in order to control global warming. I a I Individual Precautions I solar energy will save from electric energy. I 90% of the energy consumed in the washing machines are used for heating the water. Using water in candidates of icicle provide 6,5% energy saving. If every family saves up 3 C for 24 hrs, it means saving up 1 1 . 100 gallons of petroleum. Proper isolation in a house of 150 assume provide 60% energy save.

I a I Compact licentious are two times more expensive than the normal bulbs but when they are used 4 hours a day, they will last 6. 85 years and they consume 5 times less energy than normal bulbs. I Personal Responsibilities I In order to prevent global warming, we have to: I ;Socioeconomic consumption of electricity and water. ;Reserve renewable energy sources. ;Prefer public transportation. ;Use unleaded petroleum to decrease the air pollution. ;Choose ozone friendly deodorants to avoid the increase of greenhouse gases. Be conscious about the damages of using PVC material. Plant more trees to reduce the effects of erosion. ;Assist other people for a conscious society. I a I Renewable Energy Sources I Nowadays, the old fashioned technology destroys both the environment and the living creatures’ areas. With the use of renewable energy sources; -Fossil fuels’ usage will be reduced. It will decrease the amount of greenhouse gases. -The decreasing ratio of greenhouse gases will minimized environmental and health problems. – The low costs of renewable energy sources will affect economical activity in a costively.

I a I Renewable energy sources are; Wind energy, Solar energy, Biomass energy, Hydroelectric energy, Geothermal energy and Tide energy. I Wind Energy I Wind energy is one of the most important energy sources in the world, bunts ratio in the mass energy production is not enough. Besides, European countries are planning to construct centrals for developing the wind energy industry until 2010. Their capacities are going to reach approximately 40 thousand MIMI In a few years, the cost of the electric power provided from this energy source will cheap. On the other hand, the wind energy is not unlimited and it creates loud noises during the work.

I a I Lowermost I The solar power is the right choice as a reliable energy source, because it’s unlimited and harmless for the environment. The negative side of using it is I that it is difficult to afford and impossible to store. Scenarios prepared by Peepshow that the increasing world population will be in need of solar power in the future. I a I Biomass Energy I 13% of the mass energy are provided from biomass sources around the world. These sources mainly consist of stubbles from the fields, fences and woods. I While the usage of raw materials is increasing, it is going to cause erosion/p>

The variety of the ecosystem becomes plainer every year and it decreases the productivity. Another disadvantage of the biomass is that it can only be produced from large energy farms. I a I Hydroelectric Energy I As a clean and cheap energy source in the past, hydroelectric energy was provided from large centrals. After 1990, countries preferred to build small hydroelectric centrals, because the large ones were destroying the environment and the human Large centrals did not help to reduce the global warming, on the contrariety effected negatively, because the plants in the irremovable water of the dam creates methane.

I a I Small hydroelectric centrals are mainly preferred today, because of thterminologicalotentials. I Geothermal Energy I It is being used for heating cities, in farming facilities, pools and resorts. The steam energy was first used at the end of 19th century. But the real achievement was handled after 1961. | The geothermal energy is the hot water which is the main element of the world’s core. Many countries like Italy, USA, Japan, Iceland and Russia are using geothermal energy in many different areas.