Global Warming and the Green Movement Executive summary Base on the understanding of global warming and through the terrible experience of living environment that we have already known human is the chief culprit. It is an international issue and everyone has the responsibility to protect our earth. In this assignment, we will discuss how does global warming happen and explain how to remedy it. Introduction What is global warming? Global Warming is the increase of Earth’s average surface temperature due to effect of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels or room deforestation, which trap heat that would otherwise escape from Earth. This is a type of greenhouse effect” . (New Mexico Solar Energy Association, n. D. ) As we know, global warming is an international Issue and It becomes more seriously. The human acuity cause the average temperature of earth’s atmosphere and oceans.
Body Savant Awareness, a Swedish scientist said that “fossil fuel combustion may eventually result In enhanced global warming” (Muslin, M. , 2004) In 1896, and he proposed a relation between atmospheric carbon doodle concentrations and temperature. But It was thought than human Influences were Insignificant compared to natural forces, and water vapor was seen as a much more Influential greenhouse gas. “Since 1 sass’s that the global annual mean temperature curve started to There are two main factors that cause the temperature changes: First. Greenhouse gases.
This is the most important factor which are from burning fossil fuels, population growing and land-use change. “Greenhouse gases are those that can absorb and emit infrared radiation, but not radiation in or near the visible spectrum”. (Karl TRY & Deterrent EKE,2003). It includes H2O, CO, CHI, NON, 03 and CUFF. “Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases are determined by the balance between sources (emissions of the gas from human activities and natural systems) and sinks (the removal of the gas from the atmosphere by conversion to a different chemical compound).
The proportion of an emission remaining in the atmosphere after a specified time is the ” Airborne fraction ” (OAF)” (EPIC, 2007). In other word, the annual OAF is the ratio of the atmospheric in a given year to that year’s total emissions. According to Candle, JAG that for CO the OAF over the last 50 years 1956-2006) has been increasing at 0. 25В±0. 21 (PANS, 2007). Since the Industrial Revolution begin, people start to burn fossil fuels such as liquid fuels (gasoline, fuel oil), solid fuels (coal) and gaseous fuels (natural gas) that lead to carbon dioxide concentrations increasing every year in the air.
The following graph shows the CO levels over the past 160 thousand years (the upper curve, with units indicated on the right hand side of the graph). If we do not curb emissions that the current level will be increased over the next hundred years, it is also shown (the part f the curve which goes way up high, to the right of the current level, is the projected CO rise). The projected increase in CO is very startling and disturbing. Changes in the Earth’s average surface temperature are also shown (the lower curve, with units on the left).
Please note that it parallels the CO level curve is very well. Next, the population from year 1800 until now is over 7 billion by the “United States Census Bureau (SUBS)”. This is the diagram of the world population estimates from 1800 to 2100 on the below: The frequent human activity produce greenhouse gas and leading to increased additive forcing from CO, CHI, NON and 03. To satisfy the demand of people living, many industries produce such as refrigerator and plastic that make the hazardous substance to pollute the environment and get earth warming.
Last, “land use change (mainly deforestation in the tropics) account for up to one third of total anthropogenic CO emissions” (EPIC, 2007). The clearing of forests is for agricultural use so that the temperature of earth is become high. Besides, some agricultural activities such as the use of fertilizers, that lead to higher nitrous oxide (NON) concentrations. Second. Particulates and soot. As we know that London is called the city of fog’, which mean the air is always dim and the weather is terrible in London.
Actually it produced by volcanoes and human made pollutants, which exerts a cooling effect by increasing the reflection of incoming sunlight. The soot will be airborne or deposited, it may cause the earth cool or warm. The influence of global warming 1 . Rising seas. The melting of ice sheets, which contributes to the inundation of fresh The number of cold days is decreasing year by year, the summer is always hot and the length and intensity of tropical cyclone is increasing every year. Some places suffer the floods, but some other places suffer the intense droughts.
The global warming may decrease the cold death, overall, however, the influence is mostly negative. 3. Ocean acidification. The ocean is a sink for carbon dioxide and taking up much that would otherwise remain in the atmosphere, but increased levels of CO have led to ocean acidification. Therefore, the ocean becomes less able to absorb excess CO. 4. Agriculture. The temperature increases affect the amount of precipitation such as drought leads crop failures and the loss of pasture grazing land for livestock. In recent years, more frequent and intense drought in Africa, the Middle East, Southern Europe and so on. . Health. The global warming may result in extreme cold or extreme drought that lead to many young children and elders death. The complicated change of climate may through such as water or air to spread bacteria and make people die. 6. Ecosystem. Because the loss of habitat near the poles that polar bear is suffering the threaten of death. Because the sea warming and acidification lead to one third of coral reefs in the world is damaged now. Because the warming sea lead to such as killer whales, sea otters, sea lions and ashes are lost. The ecosystem is become disordered.
Responses to global warming 1. Renewable energy This is the advantage and disadvantage of nonrenewable and renewable energy sources: The most dangerous disadvantage of nonrenewable is the harmful green house gas, even it is easy to use and the resource is abundantly available, but it will be use up one day. So the government invest the scientific research institution to develop the renewable instead of nonrenewable, such as solar, geothermal, hydroelectric, tidal, etc. Renewable is easily regenerated and no harmful substance to affect the global warming.
The most promising sector for near term reductions is the coal-fired electricity. In other hand, for example, wind power can make substantial cuts in these emissions in the near term, as can energy efficiency, and also the increased use of high efficiency natural gas generation. 2. Policy There are 195 countries are parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFROCK. Com, n. D. ). The objective of the convention is to avoid the dangerous human interference of the climate system and keep the greenhouse gas concentration in a normal level as the convention ruled.
In fact, some country need ark to decrease 10%, some needs to decrease 5%, etc, and also invest in new technologies, such as hydrogen technology, as quickly as possible. To satisfy the Kyoto protocol, the developed countries are required to cut back their emissions by a total of 5. 2 % between 2008 and 2012 from 1990 levels. In other words, the United States should have to reduce its presently projected 2010 annual emissions by 400 million tons of CO. The first thing that developed country should first lead other developing to do is reduce pollutant emission such as automobile exhaust.
Besides, contain the energy abuse. 3. Green Movement It includes conservation, green politic, science and social that for addressing environmental issues. It is an international movement that lead people to realize the meaningful of stop global warming. There are some substantial measures: First, development and extension of gas, oil and coal stocks to be used at the time of crisis. Second, flexible and approachable use of alternative resources of energy. Third, encouraging people for adapting alternative energy resources in their daily lives.
For example, use solar heater instead of electricity heater for general life within homes. Recommendations Peoples are now more and more realize the importance of stop global warming. In our general life, we can see many environmental behaviors around society. First, less or stop using plastic. The plastic is used everywhere and people cannot without it because it is convenient and cheap. Most of us clearly understand that plastic is hard to decompose and it will discharge toxic smog if burn it. But how should let people do not use it ?
For example, plastic bag, plastic bottle, plastic wrapping paper, etc. All of those we have to use every day. So for, we can use such as sack, stainless steel and lass to instead of those disposable products. There are almost all supermarkets sell the reusable bag to customer and we also can carry it conveniently to package. Besides, when we want to take away the food from restaurant that we can use the stainless steel lunch box instead the throw-away lunch box. Second, less or stop using disposable products.
Disposable product is talking about those products cannot be use twice or above, such as throwaway chopsticks, disposable slippers, tissue, battery, etc. For example, there are almost all toilet requisites offered are the disposable products, such as toothbrush, comb, even slippers. Thus, countless rubbishes are produced every day in the world Just because people’s lazy and greedy, although now more and more hotels Join the green movement plan that is never offer the toilet requisites and ask customer provide for themselves, but still many lawbreakers never follow the action because their personal interests.
In the other side, customer still would like to use those disposable products and never think about the earth. Third, more public transportation. Appeal people do not always trip by car and appeal them to use the bus, train, or even walk. Reduce carbon emission s very important to decrease the atmospheric temperature and global warming. People use less electrical equipment is also good for environment, such as air- condition, refrigerator, washing machine, etc. Those equipments will produce such as Freon that destroy ozone and keep earth warming. Finally, green activity.
The most important thing for rescue global warming is not we do not do anything bad for it, on the other hand, it is that we do something good for rescue global warming such as plant more trees, normal period of rest and so on. In my opinion, global warming is not only an international issue, but also it is a long- ERM issue that need all human to solve it. The best way of reduce global warming is need government lead scientist and business owner to change the behavior of customer such as never use disposable products anymore and lead them to use the renewable energy instead of nonrenewable energy.
People understand the serious of global warming, but why they never or less do something to protect our earth that is they have no enough external condition yet, and these are the most important things that we should think about it. References & appendices 1 . New Mexico Solar Energy Association, n. D. , “Global Warming FAQ”. Adapted on 07/07/2013. URL: http://www. Names. Org/Curriculum/Primer/Global_Warming/ fossil_fuels_and_global_warming. HTML 2. S. M. Nuzzle, n. D. , “History of the greenhouse effect and global warming”. Adapted on 07/07/2013.
URL: http://www. Length. Com/ greenhouse-effect/global-warming-history. HTML 3. Thomas R. Karl & Kevin E. Deterrent, 2003. “Modern Global Climate Change”. Science 5 December 2003, 302 (5651), up. 1719-1723. 4. Candle. J. G, 2007. “Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks”. PANS, 104 (47), up. 18866-18870. 5. United Nations, n. D. , “World Population Prospects, the 2012 Revision”. Adapted on 07/07/2013. URL: http:// 6. Census. Com, n. D. , “International Programs”.
Adapted on 07/07/2013. URL: http:// www. Census. Gob/population/international/ 7. Rearrangement. Com, n. D. , “Renewable vs.. Nonrenewable energy pros and cons”. Adapted on 07/07/2013. URL: http://rearrangement. Net/? P=124 8. UNFROCK, n. D. , “Bonn Climate Change Conference”. Adapted on 07/07/2013. URL: http://unfrock. Nit/ 2860. PH TOPIC 2 Ethics in business Business ethic is happened in a business environment and it will affect the whole process of business development. Business ethics reflects the philosophy of cuisines.
In this assignment, it lists the five major sources of unethical issues such as human rights, child labor, sweat shop, pollution and corruption that show almost all aspects of the business ethic behaviors. On the other hand, these ethical issues reflects the interaction of profit-maximizing behavior with non-economic concerns. What is business ethics? Business ethics is the study of business situations, activities, and decisions where issues of right and wrong are addressed (Satanist, 2009). “According to this definition, business ethics covers the whole spectrum of interactions between firms, individuals, society and the state.
In other words, business ethics is a complex as business itself. It is not an optional accessory to business life or a mere enthusiasm of the philosophers and moralists; business ethics is how the people conduct their business affairs, from the basest fraud to the highest levels of excellence” (Grace and Cohen, 2005, p. 1). Milton Friedman said that “responsibility, generally will be to make as much money as possible while conforming to their basic rules of the society, both those embodied in law and those embodied in ethical custom”.
As we known, many social stability and fair competition, etc. Also, some specialists consider that business ethics begins where the law ends. Business ethics is primarily concerned with those issues not covered by the law, or where there is no definite consensus on whether something is right or wrong. Discussion about the ethics of particular business practices may eventually lead to legislation once some kind of consensus is reached, but for most of the issues of interest to business ethics, the law typically does not currently provide us with guidance” (Satanist, 2009).
Most ethical issues include the rights and duties between a company and its employees, suppliers, customers and neighbors, its fiduciary responsibility to its shareholders. A business cannot claim to be ethical company if it ignores unethical practices such as using child labor and force them to work, production in sweatshops, violate the basic human rights, pollution and corruption. 1. Child labor Child labor is people under the age of majority and employed in continuous work environment. The industry of child labor involve such as manufacturing, farming, cleaning and even sex industry.
The child is unable to attend school because of the work schedule, and the working conditions must be hard or dangerous. Using hillier as laborers became an issue since the industrial age, and children were often documented in factories performing grueling work like weaving and tailoring. Until now they are also worked in dangerous environments like mines. According to the UK Committee for EUNICE, poverty is the most common factor contributing to child labor. So that many businesses Just need to pay very low salary to hire child labor and then save the cost, thus increase the profit.
It seems increase the employment opportunity and increase the economy, but in fact, the biggest winners are those firms. For example, the India government carry out “The National Child Labor Project (UNCLE)” to control this unethical issue and appeal people stop using child labor, help them go to school. 2. Sweatshop Sweatshop is a manufacturing facility characterized by poor working conditions, violations of labor law, long hours, and low wages. How does it happened ? There are several conditions promote the proliferation of sweatshops.
First, the tendency of major producers in the first world to contract their work out to nations with less demanding labor laws. Second, sweatshops also tend to use a number of techniques to control their workers, and employees are often kept in the dark about their labor sights. In some cases, for example, a sweatshop may provide housing and food for workers, and keeping them on the grounds of the facility at all times. In total, sweatshop is one of the ways to maximize the profit of company and satisfy the demand of the upper class. 3.
Pollution Compare with developed country, developing country often lack environment regulations because many developed countries invest the factory and set up it in those developing countries. There are three major types of pollution: air pollution, water pollution and land pollution. First, countless trees are cut for use the material o produce and discharge the smog, thus the balance of atmospheric temperature is towards the sea. People have no water to drink and face the death. Third, countless rubbishes are produced every day from those factories, the land is wasted and people cannot plant to survive. . Corruption International businesses have gained economic advantages by making payments to government officials, in other word, it is outlawed the paying of bribes to foreign government officials to gain business. It makes thousands of local business have shut down and those international company monopolized the market. Corruption is an unfair competition that cause the malicious competition and seriously disrupt market order, thus affect the economy. In 1997, the trade and finance ministers from the member states of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (COED) followed the U. S. Dead and adopted the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. 5. Human Rights Human rights are rights of all human beings since we born, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, color, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. (United Nations, n. D. ). For example, the right to liberty cannot to restricted, but there are thousands of children and adults work in sweatshop have the terrible work environment and often face many dangerous situations in some companies.
Now many organizations are trying to protect human rights in business and ending human rights abuses. For example, Children’s Defense Fund (CDC) is a child advocacy organization that help child shake off poverty and protect them avoid the maltreat and make sure they can have the basic care and education. Another is the National Association of Colored People (NAACP). The mission of the NAACP is to make sure the political, educational, social and economic quality of rights of all persons, thus reduce the gap among different levels of people.
In total, to maximize profit and hold market share, “many multinational companies are tempted to ignore or even severely violate the business ethical principles on the external markets approached. They operate, from the point of view of the business ethics, under the power of cultural relativism” (Grace and Cohen,2005, p. 2000), adapting its ethical behavior to the ultra particularities and the local economic practices, succeeding in approaching and maintaining with success on the markets often dominated by suspicious practices.
So far, the mass media is a good way to expose those unethical issues and the company will have a negative effect the reputation, especially on the developed markets. Therefore, the result is not Just decrease the profit of company, but also the firm will face the situation of shut down. Those five major business issues are the most important and popular topics around people’s life. Base on the study from some kinds of information that the analysis is on he below: 1. Child labor. The most important reason of so many children have to work is that they are really poor and the sweatshop is their only chance to survive themselves.
The government of developing country is trying to practice new policies and reduce the quantity of child labor, but those companies are the main factor in this situation. Besides law, establish a good business ethic system can greatly that under the age of majority and give them a normal work environment and normal work hours. 2. Sweatshop. People work in sweatshop is treated as a work machine that seems like never need rest and the cost is cheaper. After EZRA, HEM, Nikkei and Aids, the media should stand up to the pressure that continue to expose the criminal events and force the superintendent office to rectify those dark companies.
The power of public opinion is huge and it can force government stop the sweatshop, on other hand, it can make company realize the serious influence of sweatshop has been exposed. 3. Pollution. The pollution is not only dangerous to the environment, but also harmful to the people’s health. Except use the filtration system before discharge pollutant, the useful way in the future is use renewable energy instead of nonrenewable energy. There are still many factories even have not use the filtration system and Just discharge pollutant in other’s country.
This is another moral habit that affect the environment of earth. 4. Corruption. It is an unfair way of competition that maximize the profit, but use unethical method to achieve the business goal and try to monopolize the market. So that establish the transparent financial system is necessary and the superintendent office should inspect the financial statement and taxation table regularly. Establish an impartial and logical Judicial system is also very necessary to mutual monitoring among government and firm. . Human Rights.
Human rights is the basic rights of people and any organization cannot constraint the freedom of people. The company should offer the equal opportunity of employment and not allow to violate human right. Any behavior of degrade dignity is illegal and unethical that government can take control of this. In business, the responsibility is according to manager’s desires, which is to make as much money as possible while follow the basic rules of society, and doing business is base on both of the legal and morality.
According to those five major issues that show the company in order to increase the profit and the business ethics are always negative, but the real social responsibilities of business is that business does not care “only” profits, but also to promote the desirable of social, a business should has a “social conscience”, and the importance of their responsibilities are to provide employment opportunities and eliminate discrimination, to avoid any possible contamination and others. Conclusion There is no country can survive without a common moral and a social value. Ethical issue is happened everywhere in any level of economic development.
The influence f business to improve the economy is powerful and use a positive way of action to do business is not only increase profit, but also protect the environment and keep social stability. In my opinion, ethic in business cannot be controlled only by law. It also needs company, customer and government work together, then build the fair and logical environment to improve the situation in this society. People should appeal or even force company to do the sustainable thing to develop business, but not always focus on how to maximize profit. The person that get common feelings of people can gets the world. 1. Milton Friedman, 1970.